RFID inventory control
for fresh produce

Auto pallet RFID location tracking.
Pallets put onto truck are auto added to order, and checked for accuracy.
Pick up a pallet and its RFID instantly selected.
Add pallet/bin to production line and its auto added to batch for traceability.

RFID fresh produce fruit vegetable inventory

Zero waste
Stock rotation and expiry can be eliminated through automatic alerts, automatic FIFO enforcement, staff are guided to the exact location of fresh produce that must be processed or sold first.

Zero effort
Simply pick up a pallet/bin/bag and move it.  RFID by farmsoft automatically tracks fresh produce inventory movement, updates its location, and flashes an alert on your tablet. Select an order, load pallets onto truck..… RFID by farmsoft automatically adds the pallets to the
order / invoice. Tip a bin into a batch or add pallet to a batch, its auto added to the batch. If you have your own trucks, you can RFID tag them; when you load an order farmsoft RFID will know which truck you have loaded. 

Zero errors
Ever put the wrong pallet onto a truck, only to discover the error and must unload? Ever sent the wrong pallet across the country only to have to pay for it to be returned? Never again! RFID
by farmsoft will alert you the second you pick up a pallet that doesn’t match current order. Make fresh produce load outs faster, and 100% accurate. 

Rapid and easy to implement RFID 

1. Pallet position reader
2. Pallet tag reader
3. 10" tablet running farmsoft 


Hardware costs as low as $450 per forklift.  No expensive infrastructure necessary.

Each forklift requires...

RFID for fresh produce

Android tablet 

Use farmsoft on the tablet to view pallet maps (visual map shows where your required pallet is), view and select & fill orders, send invoices and more... The tablet will recieve reads from the RFID reader.

RFID pallet control tag reader

RFID reader X 2

Use any RFID reader that has emulated keyboard mode, obviously you need to match the reader with your tags and test that the readers can scan at the required distances. 865-915Mhz recommended.

RFID fresh produce inventory USB hub

USB data hub

This allows multiple RFID readers to be connected to the tablet and will also power readers and keep tablet charged.   This hub should have its own power supply 36W+ to ensure enough power for all connected devices.

RFID Inventory control accessories

Other bits

Tablet clamp to hold tablet on forklift, USB cables as required, USB adapter, cable ties, bracket(s) for readers.


See Fresh Produce RFID brochure for specifications

RFID for fresh produce pallet control and inventory management

Your choice of RFID tags for fresh produce pallet control

When you print pallet labels from farmsoft, you can scan the RFID (or two, one for each forklift pickup side) so farmsoft knows which pallet to assign the RFID. This process takes 2 seconds and can be done using a tablet or PC and an RFID reader.

Choose RFID tags that already have a unique serial number encoded into them; there is no need for your to write to the RFID. RFID stickers start from 20 cents per sticker.  

3-D RFID pallet tracking.
Find pallets rapidly by viewing  pallet maps, easy to select 
another pallet that isn’t obstructed

Warnings during
order loading
ensures every
order is
loaded
perfectly by auto reading pallet RFIDs.

How to test farmsoft RFID for fresh produce before committing to purchase:

The test below should cost no more than $150. Before you purchase bulk RFID hardware; you should buy a few testing items such as one RFID reader/scanner and three or four different types of RFID tags (make sure the tag matches the scanner, and has pre-programmed serial number) and the USB hub.

1. Plug the scanner into the hub, and the hub into any Android tablet. Open up a text document or blank email on the tablet (we just need a space where text can be dumped by the RFID reader).

2. Simulation test: On a forklift position the reader where you intend on installing it, and move the RFID tag into the position it will be on the pallet or floor and note the distances at which the reading occurs (in the blank document on the Android tablet, you will see a string of text added every time the RFID scanner reads the tag). If the RFID tags scan at reasonable distances based on where you intend to fix the reader, then this part of the test has succeeded. Otherwise reposition RFID scanner or tags until you get good results. See “How should I label my pallet positions?” for additional testing. You should test with your four different RFID tags to see if selected tags scan at different distances (this is common).

3. The Pallet Position Reader (1) should preferably not read when the fork is lifted for pallet transportation.

4. Test that your Wifi works in all coolers and warehouses (farmsoft fresh produce RFID requires an always on data connection). If you have dead spots, install boosters or Wifi access points with better antennae (note that 5Gen Wifi is pretty much useless in commercial environments because of its very short range and weak signal).

If you can pass the tests above you are ready to buy your RFID hardware for your entire fleet of forklifts.   If your RFID tests didnt pass, try different hardware, different RFID tags, or different RFID read distances. 

Reasons to implement farmsoft RFID pallet control for fresh produce...

fresh produce delivery management

Easy incoming delivery saves time

Increase the efficiency of fresh produce deliveries and integrate with scales.

fruit quality control xero

Superior quality control for better product

Guarantee the quality of your inventory. 

Suggested RFID tags for fresh produce pallet inventory monitoring 

We recommend 856-915Mhz RFID tags because their range is practical for most fresh produce RFID applications.   You can use RFID stickers that are applied to any carton on the pallet (obviously in the correct position for scanning) and will be disposable (from 20 cents a label). Alternatively you can apply re-useable plastic reinforced RFID tags that have a greater read distance, however cost a lot more so need to be removed from the pallet when its loaded for shipping.

reduce fresh produce administration costs

Reduce administration costs

Automatic generation of labels, audits of chili inventory and batches, and recalls/mock recalls.

How to mount RFID position reader on forklift

If possible, we suggest you mount the reader on the fork that lifts when a pallet is raised (you may need a longer USB cable depending on your forklift design). This should result in no RFID reads when you pass over a position tag and the pallet is raised for movement; when you lower the pallet a position tag will be read and the pallet will be automatically deselected (if no Order is currently selected).

If you can’t mount this reader on the bottom of the fork then tags will be read every time you pass over one, in this case you can enable a setting that stops farmsoft from automatically deselecting the pallet (note you will have to tap the screen to tell farmsoft when you are deselecting a pallet in this case. Mount the reader in position indicated about 4” from the ground for optimal RFID reads.

How to mount pallet RFID tag reader on forklift

This reader doesn’t need to move with the fork (it can however if you want), and should be mounted at the height you will apply the RFID tag on the pallet (as close to as possible, and not obstructed by metal.

Staff that build pallets should be instructed to apply the tag at a consistent height and position to ensure every pallet RFID tag will be read easily. If your RFID tag is not integrated into your pallet label then you can continue to apply your pallet label in your chosen position for easy readability.

There is no height at which the RFID tag must be placed; choose a height that is practical for your combination of forklift and reader to maximize pallet tag accuracy and RFID scan distance.   

RFID fresh produce business management features:

Can I use pallets with built in RFID tags?

Yes. In this case you will mount the pallet RFID reader on the fork near the position RFID reader. The process for assigning the pallet to the RFID is the same, obviously they need to scan the pallet to get the RFID serial.

How do I associate RFID tags with a pallet? 

Simply scan the RFID after you add a new pallet in farmsoft (you will need to plug a reader into your PC [if using Android you will need a powered data hub and an external keyboard because plugging in an RFID reader will disable the software keyboard in Android OS), for this purpose the reader can simply be on a bench next to or near the PC (since users are likely printing labels during this same process), or use an Android device that has a built in RFID reader.

How should I label my pallet positions?   

Name each warehouse/cooler with a number, eg: 01, 02 etc. Isles with a number 01, 02 etc. Pallet positions with an number 01, 02 etc. If you stack pallets two high, swap the 0 for a 2, eg: 21 (level 2, position 1), 22 etc. You can tell the exact position of a pallet within your business: 01 02 04 (Cooler 1, Isle 2, Position 4). Apply RFID tags in front of each pallet position. Make sure the tag is in a position where it will be read when putting a pallet down. This is usually a few inches before the pallets physical floor space. Test before you permanently apply pallet position RFID tags by simply placing the tag on the floor and using the simulation test to check its read distance and position. To apply RFID tags for fresh produce pallet positions, chip a very shallow hole into the cement, insert RFID tag, cover over with superglue to make the surface flat and protect & preserve the RFID tag. Larger tags have better scan rates so you may choose a larger tag for your pallet positions, again, testing is essential. Paint pallet spaces on the floor to ensure pallets dropped in correct space for maximum RFID rea accuracy.

RFID pallet location map fresh produce

ILLUSTRATION:  farmsoft fresh produce pallet location map automatically updated using RFID tags in real time.  Effortless fresh produce inventory management.  

How can I make my RFID tags read at greater distance? 

If you need your pallet position RFID tags to read at greater distance ask your RFID tag provider which tags can have their read range boosted by placing a metal plate under them prior to installation (or experiment yourself with your test tags).

You can also plug the USB hub (which powers the RFID reader) into a higher powered USB charger (eg: higher wattage and voltage, or use a smart adaptable maximum wattage charger). Using a hub that isn’t powered (by a higher wattage USB charger) shortens read distances by 50% in our tests. In our testing with RFID tags; we achieved maximum read distance of 9.5” / 24cm using the cheapest readers we could find (ie: if this distance doesn’t work for you [it should if you position everything correctly] then buy more expensive RFID readers and use higher power UBB hub & charger, place metal plates behind RFID pallet position tags, or use non disposable tags that are larger and have greater read distance (remove from pallets during shipping process).

Can I skip RFID tagging pallet positions? 

Yes, however users will need to select a new storage location every time they move a pallet; essentially the only benefit of using RFID for fresh produce like this would be to have the pallet automatically selected when it is picked up (for movement, and for adding to orders).

Can I tag every case? 

Yes, however this will significantly increase the cost of your RFID project (please enquire), and also increase the required hardware costs by about 400-800%. Individual case tagging requires a project to determine your exact requirements and modify farmsoft RFID to match.  Please discuss this with your farmsoft consultant.

Can I substitute any brand of RFID hardware? 

Yes. Just make sure it passes the tests. You can use any RFID equipment from any vendor or simply order from Amazon.com.

How do I tag positions inside our trucks?

If you tag pallet positions inside your own delivery trucks, farmsoft RFID can detect the truck that you loaded the order onto. Simply tag the pallet spaces the same way you would for a warehouse or cooler.

Can we integrate other systems with farmsoft fresh produce RFID?

Yes. Ask your solution consultant for a quote to have our team perform any integration you require. Or, if you have your own I.T. department or vendor; you can integrate using the farmsoft API which is open to all companies and vendors.

What happens if an RFID doesn’t scan?

This can happen because the RFID has been removed/fell off, or placed well outside the scan zone. In this case the forklift driver can simply type the pallet number into farmsoft to select that pallet.

RFID implementation in fresh food / perishable produce businesses...

The ability to track and trace complete information at item level in an efficient and trustworthy manner is becoming more and more important for companies, mainly due to the increased consumer concern over the safety and the quality of the purchased products. This is even more true for companies involved in the fresh vegetables supply chain, because the delicacy of fresh-cut products requires all stakeholders to organize their business processes as efficiently as possible to guarantee the end customers the highest quality products.

The shift from quantity-oriented agriculture to new emphasis on products quality and people’s safety has placed new demands for the development and adoption of traceable supply chains. Traceability represents the ability to capture, collect, and store information related to all processes in the supply chain in a manner that provides guarantee to the consumer and other stakeholders on the origin, location and life history of a product. In particular, the adoption of an effective gapless traceability system, in the fresh vegetables supply chain, could enable companies to (i) detect warnings associated with product contaminations quickly and accurately, and (ii) optimize their main production processes in order to reduce cultivation costs and to ensure, at the same time, production optimization. Furthermore, an efficient traceability system represents a fundamental tool for people with special needs, such as patients affected by multiple intolerances, who struggle every day to perform elementary actions, such as the choice of food, because of the adverse reactions that particular components could cause if taken.

The combined use of different RF technologies and standards in order to improve the supply chain management has been strongly investigated in literature. They were also successfully applied to the agro-food sector. However, the development of a complete gapless traceability system, from the land to the table of the end consumer, is still at the early stages and many issues are still open. Most works propose solutions too invasive and, therefore, not accepted by the operators. A typical example concerns the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in greenhouses in order to achieve a precision agriculture.

Although the use of this technology promises many benefits, its adoption is very limited, since expert agronomists, that argue no sensor node can ever replace their skills, do not accept its use. Therefore, a very critical aspect in a reengineering procedure is that the proposed solution must be thoroughly understood by the operators, before to be accepted, and applied. Furthermore, costs related to the introduction of new technologies are relevant and block their wide adoption. Indeed, although most of the solutions presented in literature are exclusively based on the use of RFID tags, the cost of a tag is still too high to justify its adoption in the packaging of low cost products, such as fresh-cut products, whose price in Italy is about 1-2 euro per pack. Particular attention must be also paid to the choice of the type of tag to be used, since such tags must be used in critical conditions and, in particular, in humid environments, which absorb RF energy.


The development of an efficient traceability system requires the introduction in the supply chain of the technological innovations needed for product identification, process characterization, information capture, analysis, storage, and transmission, as well as the overall systems integration. These technologies include hardware (such as identification tags and labels) and software (computer programs and information systems) solutions. In particular, two of the most important auto-identification technologies able to optimize the critical processes in a supply chain are Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) and Near Field Communication (NFC).

They promise to replace the traditional optical auto-identification solutions in near future. Among the different types (i.e., passive, semipassive, and active) of RFID transponders, often called “tags”, the passive ones are used in most tracing systems, because they are characterized by a very low cost and small dimensions, since they do not require battery to operate. Passive RFID tags can also be classified according to the frequency band used (e.g., LF, HF, UHF, etc.) and the type of coupling (i.e., magnetic or electromagnetic) between tag antenna and reader antenna. The UHF tags could occasionally encounter problems, causing performance degradation, in the presence of materials, such as liquids and metals, which absorb Radio Frequency (RF) energy. However, some recent works have demonstrated that the design of particular UHF tags is able to resolve such issues, thus demonstrating that they represent the best solution for item-level tracing systems in the whole supply chain.

NFC is a short-range wireless (HF 13.56 MHz) technology derived from the RFID family. NFC entities can share power and data over a distance of a few centimeters (less than 5 cm). They inherit the basic features of RFID technology (i.e., working in reader/writer mode with passive tags) but they are also characterized by the possibility to share data across active (powered) devices. The diffusion of these RF technologies has been significantly increased by the asserting of international standards such as EPCglobal and Global Standard 1 (GS1). In particular, the EPCglobal standard provides a promising open architecture for tracking and tracing objects over the Internet. It defines a full protocol stack able to guarantee item-level data sharing related to products that move in the whole supply chain.

Another important issue still open in the design of an effective traceability system in the fresh vegetables supply chain is related to the integration of management systems of all involved actors. Vegetables producers are generally small local farms without a proper information system, and therefore, actors interact through traditional channels (i.e., phone, fax). However, since the manufacturer can be considered the main actor of the fresh vegetables supply chain, a complete integration of the production company systems could represent an important starting point.

fresh produce customer portal

Fresh produce customer portal

The portal allows your customers to create new orders, update existing orders, cancel orders, and leave quality feedback on prior purchases.  

RFID fresh produce inventory mananagement for better traceability and less fruit & vegetable waste


Address the challenge of origin traceability in fresh produce; "Traceability - Your Product in the fresh produce pipeline," includes results of projects using RFID traceability for field to the shelf.   "With recent outbreaks of food borne illnesses, the vegetable industry has been proactive in developing a plan to trace fresh produce to its origin,"​ said FFVA​ marketing & international trade division director.

The seminar, covers lessons learned in the traceability project conducted by the PMA and the Canadian Produce Marketing Association that tested the feasibility of using RFID to track product starting at the distribution level.

"Many obstacles were overcome during the creation of this system. The seminar will show participants how this was accomplished,"​.   Guest speakers senior vice president and general merchandise manager of perishables for Wal-Mart, and Doug Grant, chief information officer for The Oppenheimer Group, a Canadian marketer of fresh produce from all over the world.

Peterson oversees all meat, produce, dairy, frozen, floral, bakery and commercial bread operations for Wal-Mart Stores, its domestic Supercenters and the new Neighborhood Markets. Grant serves on several industry committees; including co-chair of both Can-Trace and CPTTF Traceability committees. He received the 2003 Canadian Produce Man of the Year award. The convention is to be held 26 to 28 September 2004 in Florida, USA.   

The ability to trace food to its origins has become an increasingly critical issue for biosecurity and food safety, and many food manufacturers are looking at how best to apply the concept to fresh produce. In a separate move, a partnership between Merit-Trax, Syscan and Sensor Wireless was recently formed for this specific purpose.

Merit-Trax Technologies has selected Syscan International as its exclusive supplier of RFID technology for its Trax-IT Fructus software application. The application is designed to record and report quality inspections and environmental conditions of fresh fruits and vegetables from harvest to retail.

"Merit-Trax has developed an innovative software/hardware offering for the fresh fruits and vegetables segment of the food industry supply chain that is a perfect fit for our RFID technology,"​ said Syscan International president Axel Striefler.

"The immense potential of the fruit and vegetable marketplace is extremely exciting for our company and the sector is highly synergistic with our meat and seafood segment. We believe that Merit-Trax will play an important role in the deployment of our technology in the Americas."​

Sensor Wireless has been selected to supply its sensor technology, which will provide environmental and physio-chemical information to complement the system.

The Merit-Trax solution provides traceability and automates the capture of the physio-chemical quality and environmental data of fresh produce. This, says the company, enables producers to measure the benefits of precision farming methods.

The technology also provides traceability to verify the quality of fresh produce as it moves through the supply chain by monitoring temperature and environmental conditions in real-time.

"Our Trax-IT Fructus software provides traceability, quality and inspection management in real-time from seed to the retailer's backdoor,"​ said Merit-Trax director of sales and marketing Bob Aubertin.

"We strongly believe that Syscan's RFID technology will play a significant role in delivering an effective, efficient, value added application for our customers."​

The application will be compliant with the EAN/UCC Global Standards for traceability and with international regulations for exporting produce to markets outside of Canada.

Particular attention must be also paid to the choice of the type of tag to be used, since such tags must be used in critical conditions and, in particular, in humid environments, which absorb RF energy. Another important issue still open in the design of an effective traceability system in the fresh vegetables supply chain is related to the integration of management systems of all involved actors. Vegetables producers are generally small local farms without a proper information system, and therefore, actors interact through traditional channels (i.e., phone, fax). However, since the manufacturer can be considered the main actor of the fresh vegetables supply chain, a complete integration of the production company systems could represent an important starting point.

This work proposes an EPC-based gapless traceability system for the fresh vegetables supply chain able to exploit the combined use of different auto-identification technologies, such as RFID, NFC, and the less expensive DataMatrix. Particular attention was focused on the producer, and, therefore, on the early stages of the supply chain, which include farming in greenhouses and manufacturing of packaged vegetables.

The proposed item-level tracking and tracing system is characterized by a perfect integration among the adopted hardware and software subsystems in both the greenhouses and the transformation factory, preserving the role of agronomists and reducing the costs for the adoption of new technologies. Specifically, an innovative and low-cost hybrid system, in which the gapless traceability is ensured by the combined use of EPCglobal, passive UHF RFID solution, Android NFC smartphones, NFC tags (i.e., passive HF tags), and the less expensive DataMatrix technologies, is proposed.

Furthermore, an Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) [20] is adopted to deploy both traditional and innovative management services in the greenhouses. A clear separation between the logical EPC-based traceability architecture, and the physical infrastructure is a key factor in the proposed system, as it ensures a smooth, gapless, and flexible product traceability both in the greenhouse and in the transformation factory. To validate the proposed reengineered model, a pilot project was implemented in a big Italian producer company. Measurements of the main Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) [13] demonstrated the benefits derived by the use of implemented traceability system in a real scenario.

The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces the reference scenario, highlighting main problems. The proposed reengineered model and its implementation in a real pilot project are reported in Section 3. Main details related to the software system architecture are summarized in Section 4. In Section 5, a description of the hardware adopted in our work is reported. A system validation is discussed in Section 6. Finally, Section 7 summarizes the conclusions and sketches future works.

Innovative gapless traceability system able to improve the main business processes of the fresh vegetables supply chain. The performed analysis highlighted some critical aspects in the management of the whole supply chain, from the land to the table of the end consumer, and allowed us to reengineer the most important processes. In particular, the first steps of the supply chain, which include cultivation in greenhouses and manufacturing of packaged vegetables, were analyzed. The re-engineered model was designed by exploiting the potentialities derived from the combined use of innovative Radio Frequency technologies, such as RFID and NFC, and important international standards, such as EPCglobal.

The proposed tracing and tracking system allows the end consumer to know the complete history of the purchased product. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the potential benefits of the reengineered processes in a real supply chain, a pilot project was implemented in an Italian food company, which produces ready-to-eat vegetables, known as IV gamma products. Finally, some important metrics have been chosen to carry out the analysis of the potential benefits derived from the use of the re-engineered model.

The ability to track and trace complete information at item level in an efficient and trustworthy manner is becoming more and more important for companies, mainly due to the increased consumer concern over the safety and the quality of the purchased products.

This is even more true for companies involved in the fresh vegetables supply chain, because the delicacy of fresh-cut products requires all stakeholders to organize their business processes as efficiently as possible to guarantee the end customers the highest quality products.

The shift from quantity-oriented agriculture to new emphasis on products quality and people’s safety has placed new demands for the development and adoption of traceable supply chains. Traceability represents the ability to capture, collect, and store information related to all processes in the supply chain in a manner that provides guarantee to the consumer and other stakeholders on the origin, location and life history of a product.

In particular, the adoption of an effective gapless traceability system, in the fresh vegetables supply chain, could enable companies to (i) detect warnings associated with product contaminations quickly and accurately, and (ii) optimize their main production processes in order to reduce cultivation costs and to ensure, at the same time, production optimization. Furthermore, an efficient traceability system represents a fundamental tool for people with special needs, such as patients affected by multiple intolerances [1], who struggle every day to perform elementary actions, such as the choice of food, because of the adverse reactions that particular components could cause if taken.

The development of an efficient traceability system requires the introduction in the supply chain of the technological innovations needed for product identification, process characterization, information capture, analysis, storage, and transmission, as well as the overall systems integration. These technologies include hardware (such as identification tags and labels) and software (computer programs and information systems) solutions.

In particular, two of the most important auto-identification technologies able to optimize the critical processes in a supply chain are Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) [2] and Near Field Communication (NFC) [3]. They promise to replace the traditional optical auto-identification solutions in near future. Among the different types (i.e., passive, semipassive, and active) of RFID transponders, often called “tags”, the passive ones are used in most tracing systems, because they are characterized by a very low cost and small dimensions, since they do not require battery to operate.

Passive RFID tags can also be classified according to the frequency band used (e.g., LF, HF, UHF, etc.) and the type of coupling (i.e., magnetic or electromagnetic) between tag antenna and reader antenna. The UHF tags could occasionally encounter problems, causing performance degradation, in the presence of materials, such as liquids and metals, which absorb Radio Frequency (RF) energy. However, some recent works [4–7] have demonstrated that the design of particular UHF tags is able to resolve such issues, thus demonstrating that they represent the best solution for item-level tracing systems in the whole supply chain.

NFC is a short-range wireless (HF 13.56 MHz) technology derived from the RFID family. NFC entities can share power and data over a distance of a few centimeters (less than 5 cm). They inherit the basic features of RFID technology (i.e., working in reader/writer mode with passive tags) but they are also characterized by the possibility to share data across active (powered) devices [8]. The diffusion of these RF technologies has been significantly increased by the asserting of international standards such as EPCglobal [9–12] and Global Standard 1 (GS1).

In particular, the EPCglobal standard provides a promising open architecture for tracking and tracing objects over the Internet. It defines a full protocol stack able to guarantee item-level data sharing related to products that move in the whole supply chain.

The combined use of different RF technologies and standards in order to improve the supply chain management has been strongly investigated in literature [13, 14]. They were also successfully applied to the agro-food sector [15, 16]. However, the development of a complete gapless traceability system, from the land to the table of the end consumer, is still at the early stages and many issues are still open.

Most works propose solutions too invasive and, therefore, not accepted by the operators. A typical example concerns the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in greenhouses in order to achieve a precision agriculture [17–19]. Although the use of this technology promises many benefits, its adoption is very limited, since expert agronomists, that argue no sensor node can ever replace their skills, do not accept its use. Therefore, a very critical aspect in a reengineering procedure is that the proposed solution must be thoroughly understood by the operators, before to be accepted, and applied. Furthermore, costs related to the introduction of new technologies are relevant and block their wide adoption. Indeed, although most of the solutions presented in literature are exclusively based on the use of RFID tags, the cost of a tag is still too high to justify its adoption in the packaging of low cost products, such as fresh-cut products, whose price in Italy is about 1-2 euro per pack.