Increase profit & reduce food waste today!FREE TRIAL
Coffee manufacturing app
Coffee manufacturing app
The Coffee manufacturing production is the industrial process of converting the raw fruit of the coffee plant into the finished coffee. The coffee cherry has the fruit or pulp removed leaving the seed or bean which is then dried. While all green coffee is processed, the method that is used varies and can have a significant effect on the flavor of roasted and brewed coffee. Coffee production is a major source of income for 12.5 million households, most in developing countries. By adding value, processing the coffee locally, coffee farmers and countries can increase the revenue from coffee.
The process of coffee production: from seed to cup
Coffee is one of the most beloved beverages worldwide. Part of its appeal has been attributed to the fact that coffee has a higher caffeine content than most naturally produced beverages, such as tea and cocoa. In this article we will look at the process of coffee production from seed to your cup.
Coffee beans are actually seeds. It’s only after they have been dried, roasted and ground that they can be used to brew the humble zip. If unprocessed coffee seeds are planted, they can germinate and grow into coffee plants. The seeds are normally planted in large shaded beds. After sprouting, the young seedlings are left to grow for a few days before moving them to individual pots with carefully formulated soils for optimal growth. The potted seedlings are shaded from the scorching sun and watered frequently until they’re vigorous enough to be moved to their permanent growing place. Planting is best done during the rainy season to ensure the soil will remain moist as the roots get firmly established.
Depending on the specific variety, it takes approximately 3-4 years for newly planted coffee bushes to bear fruit. The fruit, commonly termed cherries, depending on the degree of ripeness, turn from green to bright or dark red – the unripe ones being green in colour. Cherries ripen faster under lower altitudes and higher temperatures. Coffee can be hand-harvested by people to ensure that only the ripe cherries are picked. Hand-picking is a hard and labour intensive process where people need to carefully check cherries for ripeness and, naturally, it involves paid labour. Cherries mature at different periods and up to three pickings are needed to clear a farm. In countries such as Brazil where land is flat and coffee is grown on large farms, cherries are machine harvested. Whether by machines or humans, coffee is always harvested by one of the following two methods:
- Strip picking – The cherries are stripped off of the branch, either by hand or by machine
- Selective picking – The red cherries are picked and the green ones are left to ripen. Picking is carried out at 10 day intervals. Since this method is labour intensive, it is mainly used to harvest the high quality Arabica coffee.
In most regions there is one major harvest season in a year. However in several countries, such as Kenya and Colombia, there are two harvesting seasons; a main and a secondary crop. The coffee harvested at the beginning and end of the season has a poorly developed flavour, while the pick from the middle of the season has the best flavour. Good roasters buy their coffee during mid-season. Gachatha Coffee Factory in Nyeri Country, Kenya was voted as the producer of the best quality coffee in 2015.
Webinar: Cannabinoids in New Products: Testing and other concerns
Many global food and beverage manufacturers including Mondelez, Coca-Cola and Molson Cools are exploring the options of cannabinoids in the edibles market. The legalisation of cannabis for edible, medicinal and recreational purposes across parts of the US and the world has accelerated the growth of cannabis testing laboratories. In this webinar, we discuss methods of cannabinoid testing and the operational challenges laboratories face.
After harvesting, cherries are processed as soon as possible to avoid spoilage. Depending on available resources and location, one of the following two methods is used.
The dry method
This is the ancient method of processing cherries and is still popular in regions where water is scarce. This method is also known as ‘unwashed’ or ‘natural’ processing. Most people who own small-scale farms use the dry method. The fresh cherries are spread out on a large surface and left to dry in the sun for 15 to 20 days. They are usually put on drying beds slightly raised from the ground, to ensure air circulation around the berries. They are regularly turned and raked throughout the day to avoid fermentation and to ensure they dry evenly. The berries are then covered at night to keep them from absorbing moisture. Depending mainly on the weather conditions, the drying process may take several weeks for each individual picking run, until picked cherries have a moisture content of less than 11%. At this stage, the outer layer will have dried up and turned black and brittle. The drying makes it relatively easy to remove the outer skin.
The wet method
This method is a relatively new way of removing the skin from coffee cherries. It’s called ‘wet’ because it uses water to both move the coffee fruit through the process and to extract the beans. The wet method involves cleaning the cherries and removing unripe and overripe cherries; just as in the first method. The cherries are then put through a pulping machine that squeezes out the skin without damaging the beans. This is made possible by the fact that coffee beans are relatively hard. If some berries are still left with the pulp on, they are not ripe enough.
These beans are hand sorted and are used to produce lower quality coffee. Coffee pulping leaves mucilage, which is then put into large tanks with enzymes being added to help get rid of the sticky substance. Beans are put in large tanks and stirred often to ensure all the mucilage is dissolved. The entire process takes approximately 24 hours. It’s important to remove all the mucilage to ensure beans are left with the flavour that was developed prior to this processing. After it has dissolved the beans are washed repeatedly to remove any leftover stickiness. The naked coffee beans are then dried in the sun for a day or two. It is worth noting that drying can also be mechanised. At this point the coffee beans leave the processing area and are sorted into different grades. The dry beans are called parchment coffee.
Coffee milling process
Before being taken to the market, the dried coffee beans are processed as follows: Hulling: Hulling parchment coffee involves removing the dried husk; exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp. Polishing: Coffee polishing is an optional step that is skipped by some millers. It involves getting rid of any sliver skin that may have found its way through hulling. Polished beans are considered to be of a higher quality than unpolished ones.
However, in terms of content, there is little difference. Grading: The beans are then sorted and graded based on size and weight. The polished beans are also checked for colour inconsistencies and other flaws with human hands being used to remove any flawed beans. The process is painstaking and can take several hours. A better method is sorting them pneumatically using an air jet to separate the light from the heavy beans. The beans are sized by putting them through a series of screens with holes that only allow a certain size of beans to pass through. The sizing takes place on a scale of one to ten. At the end of the milling process, only the finest beans are packaged for sale to the high-end markets. In some countries the lower quality beans are not discarded; instead they are taken for processing and sold as low-quality coffee.
Coffee is a beverage made by grinding roasted coffee beans and allowing hot water to flow through them. Dark, flavorful, and aromatic, the resulting liquid is usually served hot, when its full flavor can best be appreciated. Coffee is served internationally—with over one third of the world's population consuming it in some form, it ranks as the most popular processed beverage—and each country has developed its own preferences about how to prepare and present it. For example, coffee drinkers in Indonesia drink hot coffee from glasses, while Middle Easterners and some Africans serve their coffee in dainty brass cups. The Italians are known for their espresso, a thick brew served in tiny cups and made by dripping hot water over twice the normal quantity of ground coffee, and the French have contributed café au lait, a combination of coffee and milk or cream which they consume from bowls at breakfast.
A driving force behind coffee's global popularity is its caffeine content: a six-ounce (2.72 kilograms) cup of coffee contains 100 milligrams of caffeine, more than comparable amounts of tea (50 milligrams), cola (25 milligrams), or cocoa (15 milligrams). Caffeine, an alkaloid that occurs naturally in coffee, is a mild stimulant that produces a variety of physical effects. Because caffeine stimulates the cortex of the brain, people who ingest it experience enhanced concentration. Athletes are sometimes advised to drink coffee prior to competing, as caffeine renders skeletal muscles less susceptible to exhaustion and improves coordination. However, these benefits accrue only to those who consume small doses of the drug. Excessive amounts of caffeine produce a host of undesirable consequences, acting as a diuretic, stimulating gastric secretions, upsetting the stomach, contracting blood vessels in the brain (people who suffer from headaches are advised to cut their caffeine intake), and causing overacute sensation, irregular heartbeat, and trembling. On a more serious level, many researchers have sought to link caffeine to heart disease, benign breast cysts, pancreatic cancer, and birth defects. While such studies have proven inconclusive, health official nonetheless recommend that people limit their coffee intake to fewer than four cups daily or drink decaffeinated varieties.
Coffee tasting process
The packed coffee is repeatedly tasted to additionally check and define its taste and quality. The process is called capping and it takes place in a special room designed to enhance it. Tasting helps people to tell where the coffee is from. The process shouldn’t intimidate you; anyone can take part in it. It involves gurgling coffee to the back of your mouth and identifying which flavour it is. The process is quite similar to a wine tasting event. Some of the terms tasters use are:
- Acidity: Acidity describes the level of acidity of coffee. High acidity coffee is thought to be of a higher quality. Low acidity coffee is usually called soar
- The body and aftertaste are other terms used to describe the coffee. The ‘body’ refers to how the coffee feels in the mouth – for instance, it may feel heavy or extremely light. This quality is, to some extent, constant and does not depend on individual tastes.
Unroasted coffee is also known as green coffee and such beans have all the flavours locked in them. Roasting seeks to transform the green coffee into the aromatic brown beans you buy in your favourite stores. Roasting is carried out at temperatures of approximately 550F during which time the green coffee beans are turned continuously to avoid burning. Green beans are first dried until they become yellow and develop roasting smell. Once the beans register an internal temperature of 400F, the step called ‘first crack’ happens during which the beans double in size and start to turn light brown. After that, as the temperature continues to rise, the colour changes to medium brown and a fragrant oil (caffeol) starts to emerge.
This roasting stage is called pyrolysis and is the heart of roasting. It gives coffee the aroma and flavour that you witness every time you drink this magical drink. At this stage, coffee is light or medium roasted and roasting process can be stopped or continued to obtain a darker roast. After first crack and first pyrolysis, beans are absorbing heat until they reach an internal temperature of around 440F, at which point the ‘second crack’ happens and the second pyrolysis begins. Beans turn from medium dark to dark brown and you can see an oily sheen. Once roasting is complete the beans are usually doused in huge amounts of water to cool them off instantly. Becoming an expert roaster takes years of training and experience. A good roaster has to know his beans and equipment. Roasting involves being able to accurately predict the internal temperature of individual beans: something that cannot be taught; it can only be learned from years of experience.
There are different types of roasts – light, medium and dark – and within these roasts each has a few levels:
- Light roasts do not produce any oil on the surface of the coffee beans. Beans are light or a moderate light brown colour
- Medium roast beans are a medium light to medium brown colour and are developed during the first crack
- The dark roasts produce dark charred beans that have a lot of oil on the surface. Dark roasts happen after the second crack. Depending on the roasting temperature, the colour varies from medium dark brown to nearly black.
Whenever possible, roasting takes place close to where the consumer is. This is because when beans are roasted, they begin to lose their good quality immediately. Home roasting is another popular alternative. Some cafés usually offer their customers coffee roasted on site. However, in order to become an expert home roaster, one will need some training. It is not very expensive and it can be learned quickly. Seeds (unroasted coffee beans) are planted in shaded rows to protect them from too much exposure to the sun. Fresh seeds germinate about two and a half months after planting, but older seeds may take as long as six months.
Despite there being over 100 species of coffee plant, the world’s coffee is made up of just three species. The arabica species makes up 60 – 70 percent, 30 – 40 percent is made up of the robusta species, and less than two percent is from the liberica species.
The majority of the world’s coffee is grown within what is known as the coffee bean belt. The coffee belt is located between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, spanning some 3200 miles (5100km) from north to south.
The primary goal of a grind is to produce the most flavour in a cup of coffee. The type of coffee brewer used determines how fine or coarse the coffee should be ground. The type of grinding determines how fast the coffee can release its flavours. This is the reason espresso coffee is so finely ground. On the other hand, coffee prepared with filter coffee makers is coarse-grained (coarsely ground).
Coffee packaging is very important, as any exposure to air could turn the coffee into a lump. This is especially the case for ground coffee, which can quickly lose its flavour if exposed to air. This is the reason why coffee is usually packed in airtight containers and should be resealed carefully when not in use.
Selectively picked coffee manufacturing
Only the ripe cherries are harvested and they are picked individually by hand. Pickers rotate among the trees every eight to ten days, choosing only the cherries which are at the peak of ripeness. It usually takes two to four years after planting for a coffee plant to produce coffee beans that are ripe enough to harvest. The plant eventually grows small white blossoms that drop and are replaced by green berries. These green berries will become a deep red color as they ripen. It takes about 9 months for the green cherries to reach their deepest red color. Because this kind of harvest is labor-intensive, and thus more costly, it is used primarily to harvest the finer arabica beans.
Workers sorting and pulping coffee beans in Guatemala
The laborers who pick coffee by hand receive payment by the basketful. As of 2003, payment per basket is between US$1.00 to $10 with the overwhelming majority of the laborers receiving payment at the lower end. An experienced coffee picker can collect up to six or seven baskets a day. Depending on the grower, coffee pickers are sometimes specifically instructed to not pick green coffee berries since the seeds in the berries are not fully formed or mature. This discernment typically only occurs with growers who harvest for higher end/specialty coffee where the pickers are paid better for their labor. Lots including unripe coffee fruit are often used to produce cheaper mass consumer coffee beans, which are characterized by a displeasingly bitter/astringent flavor and a sharp odor. Red berries, with their higher aromatic oil and lower organic acid content, are more fragrant, smooth, and mellow. As such, coffee picking is one of the most important stages in coffee production.
In the 'Wet process', the fruit covering the seeds/beans is removed before they are dried. Coffee processed by the wet method is called wet processed or washed coffee. The wet method requires the use of specific equipment and substantial quantities of water.
The coffee cherries are sorted by immersion in water. Bad or unripe fruit will float and the good ripe fruit will sink. The skin of the cherry and some of the pulp is removed by pressing the fruit by machine in water through a screen. The bean will still have a significant amount of the pulp clinging to it that needs to be removed. This is done either by the classic ferment-and-wash method or a newer procedure variously called machine-assisted wet processing, aquapulping or mechanical demucilaging:
Sorting coffee in water
In the ferment-and-wash method of wet processing, the remainder of the pulp is removed by breaking down the cellulose by fermenting the beans with microbes and then washing them with large amounts of water. Fermentation can be done with extra water or, in "Dry Fermentation", in the fruit's own juices only.
The fermentation process has to be carefully monitored to ensure that the coffee doesn't acquire undesirable, sour flavors. For most coffees, mucilage removal through fermentation takes between 8 and 36 hours, depending on the temperature, thickness of the mucilage layer, and concentration of the enzymes. The end of the fermentation is assessed by feel, as the parchment surrounding the beans loses its slimy texture and acquires a rougher "pebbly" feel. When the fermentation is complete, the coffee is thoroughly washed with clean water in tanks or in special washing machines.
In machine-assisted wet processing, fermentation is not used to separate the bean from the remainder of the pulp; rather, this is done through mechanical scrubbing. This process can cut down on water use and pollution since ferment and wash water stinks. In addition, removing mucilage by machine is easier and more predictable than removing it by fermenting and washing. However, by eliminating the fermentation step and prematurely separating fruit and bean, mechanical demucilaging can remove an important tool that mill operators have of influencing coffee flavor. Furthermore, the ecological criticism of the ferment-and-wash method increasingly has become moot, since a combination of low-water equipment plus settling tanks allows conscientious mill operators to carry out fermentation with limited pollution. The downside in using a machine assisted process or "semi-wash" is a high chance of the beans being chipped or damaged. The damaged beans are more prominent on lower altitude grown beans and certain varietals with pourous features.
Any wet processing of coffee produces coffee wastewater which can be a pollutant. Ecologically sensitive farms reprocess the wastewater along with the shell and mucilage as compost to be used in soil fertilization programs. The amount of water used in processing can vary, but most often is used in a 1 to 1 ratio.
After the pulp has been removed what is left is the bean surrounded by two additional layers, the silver skin and the parchment. The beans must be dried to a water content of about 10% before they are stable. Coffee beans can be dried in the sun or by machine but in most cases it is dried in the sun to 12-13% moisture and brought down to 10% by machine. Drying entirely by machine is normally only done where space is at a premium or the humidity is too high for the beans to dry before mildewing.
Coffee drying in the sun. Dolka Plantation Costa Rica
When dried in the sun coffee is most often spread out in rows on large patios where it needs to be raked every six hours to promote even drying and prevent the growth of mildew. Some coffee is dried on large raised tables where the coffee is turned by hand. Drying coffee this way has the advantage of allowing air to circulate better around the beans promoting more even drying but increases cost and labor significantly.
After the drying process (in the sun or through machines), the parchment skin or pergamino is thoroughly dry and crumbly, and easily removed in the hulling process. Coffee occasionally is sold and shipped in parchment or en pergamino, but most often a machine called a huller is used to crunch off the parchment skin before the beans are shipped.
Dry process, also known as unwashed or natural coffee, is the oldest method of processing coffee. The entire cherry after harvest is first cleaned and then placed in the sun to dry on tables or in thin layers on patios:
The harvested cherries are usually sorted and cleaned, to separate the unripe, overripe and damaged cherries and to remove dirt, soil, twigs and leaves. This can be done by winnowing, which is commonly done by hand, using a large sieve. Any unwanted cherries or other material not winnowed away can be picked out from the top of the sieve. The ripe cherries can also be separated by flotation in washing channels close to the drying areas.
The coffee cherries are spread out in the sun, either on large concrete or brick patios or on matting raised to waist height on trestles. As the cherries dry, they are raked or turned by hand to ensure even drying and prevent mildew. It may take up to 4 weeks before the cherries are dried to the optimum moisture content, depending on the weather conditions. On larger plantations, machine-drying is sometimes used to speed up the process after the coffee has been pre-dried in the sun for a few days.
The drying operation is the most important stage of the process, since it affects the final quality of the green coffee. A coffee that has been overdried will become brittle and produce too many broken beans during hulling (broken beans are considered defective beans). Coffee that has not been dried sufficiently will be too moist and prone to rapid deterioration caused by the attack of fungi and bacteria.
The dried cherries are stored in bulk in special silos until they are sent to the mill where hulling, sorting, grading and bagging take place. All the outer layers of the dried cherry are removed in one step by the hulling machine.
The dry method is used for about 90% of the Arabica coffee produced in Brazil, most of the coffees produced in Ethiopia, Haiti and Paraguay, as well as for some Arabicas produced in India and Ecuador. Almost all Robustas are processed by this method. It is not practical in very rainy regions, where the humidity of the atmosphere is too high or where it rains frequently during harvesting.
Semi-dry is a hybrid process used in Indonesia and Brazil. The process is also called "wet-hulled", "semi-washed", "pulped natural" or, in Indonesia, "Giling Basah". Literally translated from Indonesian, Giling Basah means "wet grinding". This process is said to reduce acidity and increase body.
Most small-scale farmers in Sumatra, Sulawesi, Flores and Papua use the giling basah process. In this process, farmers remove the outer skin from the cherries mechanically, using locally built pulping machines. The coffee beans, still coated with mucilage, are then stored for up to a day. Following this waiting period, the mucilage is washed off and the parchment coffee is partially dried in the sun before sale at 10% to 12% moisture content.
The tricky part during the semi-washed process method are bacteria which are always around. Fermentation can start immediately as honey dried coffee beans have a remaining “sugar” layer which is vulnerable to any sort of mold and offers feeding ground for bacteria. Drying carefully and under supervision is crucial to the success of this processing method. The beans need to constantly move during the drying process to prevent mold and fungal infections. The processor needs to rake the green coffee beans 2-3 times per hour to ensure a safe drying process. Once the beans have reached a sufficient moisture level, again, the beans are dry milled to remove the “parchment” layers and are sent off to roasters and wholesalers globally.
Honey processing bridges the gap between washed and natural coffees as it generally possesses some of the body and sweetness of a natural while retaining some of the acidity of a washed. Honey coffees often have a syrupy body with enhanced sweetness, round acidity and earthy undertones.
Structure of coffee berry and beans: 1: center cut 2:bean (endosperm) 3: silver skin (testa, epidermis), 4: parchment (hull, endocarp) 5: pectin layer 6: pulp (mesocarp) 7: outer skin (pericarp, exocarp)
The final steps in coffee processing involve removing the last layers of dry skin and remaining fruit residue from the now-dry coffee, and cleaning and sorting it. These steps are often called dry milling to distinguish them from the steps that take place before drying, which collectively are called wet milling.
The first step in dry milling is the removal of what is left of the fruit from the bean, whether it is the crumbly parchment skin of wet-processed coffee, the parchment skin and dried mucilage of semi-dry-processed coffee, or the entire dry, leathery fruit covering of the dry-processed coffee. Hulling is done with the help of machines, which can range from simple millstones to sophisticated machines that gently whack at the coffee.
This is an optional process in which any silver skin that remains on the beans after hulling is removed in a polishing machine. This is done to improve the appearance of green coffee beans and eliminate a byproduct of roasting called chaff. It is described by some to be detrimental to the taste. By raising the temperature of the bean through friction which changes the chemical makeup of the bean.[verification needed]
Cleaning and sorting
Most fine coffee goes through a battery of machines that sort the coffee by the density of bean and by bean size, all the while removing sticks, rocks, nails, and miscellaneous debris that may have become mixed with the coffee during drying. First machines blow the beans into the air; those that fall into bins closest to the air source are heaviest and biggest; the lightest (and likely defective) beans plus chaff are blown in the farthest bin. Other machines shake the beans through a series of sieves, sorting them by size. Finally, a machine called a gravity separator shakes the sized beans on a tilted table, so that the heaviest, densest and best vibrate to one side of the pulsating table, and the lightest to the other.
Ethiopian women sort coffee beans at a long table.
The final step in the cleaning and sorting procedure is called color sorting, or separating defective beans from sound beans on the basis of color rather than density or size. Color sorting is the trickiest and perhaps most important of all the steps in sorting and cleaning. With most high-quality coffees color sorting is done in the simplest possible way: by hand. Teams of workers pick discolored and other defective beans from the sound beans. The very best coffees may be hand-cleaned twice (double picked) or even three times (triple picked). Coffee that has been cleaned by hand is usually called European preparation; most specialty coffees have been cleaned and sorted in this way.
Color sorting can also be done by machines. Streams of beans fall rapidly, one at a time, past sensors that are set according to parameters that identify defective beans by value (dark to light) or by color. A tiny, decisive puff of compressed air pops each defective bean out of the stream of sound beans the instant the machine detects an anomaly. However, these machines are currently not used widely in the coffee industry for two reasons. First, the capital investment to install these delicate machines and the technical support to maintain them is daunting. Second, sorting coffee by hand supplies much-needed work for the small rural communities that often cluster around coffee mills. Nevertheless, computerized color sorters are essential to coffee industries in regions with relatively high standards of living and high wage demands.
See also: Single-origin coffee
A man takes a sample of coffee beans from bags in an Ethiopian warehouse for grading.
Grading is the process of categorizing coffee beans by various criteria such as size of the bean, where and at what altitude it was grown, how it was prepared and picked, and how good it tastes (cup quality). Coffees also may be graded by the number of imperfections (broken, under-ripe, or otherwise defective beans; pebbles; sticks; etc.) per sample. For the finest coffees, origin of the beans (farm or estate, region, cooperative) is especially important. Growers of premium estate or cooperative coffees may impose a level of quality control that goes well beyond conventionally defined grading criteria, as this allows their coffee to command the higher price that goes with recognition of consistent quality.
All coffee when it was introduced in Europe came from the port of Mocha in what is now Yemen. Importing the beans to Europe required a lengthy sea voyage around the Horn of Africa, which ultimately changed the coffee's flavor due to age and exposure to saline air. Coffee later spread to India and Indonesia but still required a long sea voyage. Once the Suez Canal was opened, shipment time to Europe was greatly reduced and coffee with flavor less affected by salt and age began arriving. This fresher coffee was, to some degree, rejected as Europeans had not developed a taste for unaged coffee. To meet the demand for aged coffee, some product was aged in large, open-sided warehouses at port for six or more months in an attempt to expose the coffee to the same conditions that shipments used to require.
Although it is still widely debated and subject to personal taste, certain types of green coffee are believed to improve with age- especially strains valued for their low acidity, such as beans from Indonesia or India. Several coffee producers sell purposely aged beans, some aging for as long as 8 years. However, coffee experts consensus is that a green coffee peaks in flavor and freshness within one year of harvest and that over-aged coffee beans lose much of their essential oil content.
Main article: Decaffeination
Decaffeination is the process of extracting caffeine from green coffee beans prior to roasting. The most common decaffeination process used in the United States is supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction. In this process, moistened green coffee beans are contacted with large quantities of supercritical CO2 (CO2 maintained at a pressure of about 4,000 pounds force per square inch (28 MPa) and temperatures between 90 and 100 °C (194 and 212 °F)), which removes about 97% of the caffeine from the beans. The caffeine is then recovered from the CO2, typically using an activated carbon adsorption system.
Another commonly used method is solvent extraction, typically using oil (extracted from roasted coffee) or ethyl acetate as a solvent. In this process, solvent is added to moistened green coffee beans to extract most of the caffeine from the beans. After the beans are removed from the solvent, they are steam-stripped to remove any residual solvent. The caffeine is then recovered from the solvent, and the solvent is re-used. The Swiss Water Process is also used for decaffeination. Decaffeinated coffee beans have a residual caffeine content of about 0.1% on a dry basis. Not all facilities have decaffeination operations, and decaffeinated green coffee beans are purchased by many facilities that produce decaffeinated coffee.
Main article: Coffee bean storage
Green coffee stored in bags
Green coffee is usually transported in jute bags or woven poly bags. While green coffee may be usable for several years, it is vulnerable to quality degradation based on how it is stored. Jute bags are extremely porous, exposing the coffee to whatever elements it is surrounded by. Coffee that is poorly stored may develop a burlap-like taste known as "bagginess", and its positive qualities may fade.
In recent years, the specialty coffee market has begun to utilize enhanced storage method. A gas barrier liner to jute bags, is sometimes used to preserve the quality of green coffee. Less frequently, green coffee is stored in vacuum packaging; while vacuum packs further reduce the ability of green coffee to interact with oxygen at atmospheric moisture, it is a significantly more expensive storage option.
Main article: Coffee roasting
See also: Home roasting coffee
Although not considered part of the processing pipeline proper, nearly all coffee sold to consumers throughout the world is sold as roasted coffee in general one of four degrees of roasting: light, medium, medium-dark, and dark. Consumers can also elect to buy unroasted coffee to be roasted at home. Green coffee can also be used for the preparation of infusions or ingested as ground powder, but this is of limited relevance to the global coffee market.