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Sausage manufacturing app
Sausage manufacturing app for all sausage types guides users through grinding meat, emulsion, mixing, blending, stuffing, filling and sausage smoking processes for maximum sausage quality and food safety & traceability for sausage manufacturers.

Sausage manufacturing app

Sausage manufacturing app:

Sausage Production Processing Insight

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Sausage manufacturing processing app
Sausage manufacturing processing app

Sausage Manufacturing, Grinding, Mixing, Stuffing:

Sausage Production & Stuffing:

Sausage manufacturing processing app
Sausage manufacturing processing app

I. Overview of Sausage Making

Sausage making originally developed as a means to preserve and transport meat. Primitive societies learned that dried berries and spices could be added to the dried meat. By 600-500 BC there is mention of sausages from China, Rome, and Greece. The word “sausage” is derived from the Latin word “salsus”, which means salted, or preserved by salting. Sausages and sausage products have since evolved into a wide variety of flavors, textures, and shapes resulting from variations in ingredients and manufacturing processes.
Sausage grew in popularity and brought fame and fortune to many sausage makers and to various cities. Today more than 250 varieties are sold, and many of these can be traced back to the town and country of origin. The contemporary role of sausage fits conveniently into our modern lifestyles as an elegant appetizer for entertaining as well as the main course in quick-and-easy meals. Furthermore, sausages are a relatively safe product to consume because of the added effects of salt, pH, cure, drying and cooking to preserve the product and eliminate harmful bacteria. Sausage is a convenient food available in a great number of varieties and flavors. Sausages are an excellent source of high-quality protein, containing all the essential amino acids in appropriate amounts necessary for growth, maintenance, and repair of body tissue. Sausage also provides significant amounts of vitamins and minerals.

II. Types of Sausage

Sausages are made from beef, veal, pork, lamb, poultry and wild game, or from any combination of these meats. Sausage making has become a unique blend of old procedures and new scientific, highly-mechanized processes. Traditionally, the sausage was formed into a symmetrical shape, but it now can be found in a variety of shapes and sizes to meet consumers’ needs. Sausages can be classified in a variety of ways, but probably the most useful is by how they are processed. Processing methods give sausages easily recognizable characteristics, and the types of sausage are classified as the following chart.

Sausage manufacturing processing app
Sausage manufacturing processing app

III. Sausage Production Processing

In this part, you will go over the main steps which are used to produce standard sausage products, and the main processes used to produce sausages are as followings:
●Selecting ingredients
●Grinding meat ingredients
●Blending the meat and non-meat ingredients
●Stuffing and filling
●Smoking
●Packaging and storage

Sausage manufacturing processing app
Sausage manufacturing processing app

1. Selecting ingredients

The finished product is only as good as the ingredients it contains. Meat should be fresh, high quality, have the proper lean-to-fat ratio and have good binding qualities. The meat should be clean and not contaminated with bacteria or other microorganisms. In other words, the meat used in sausage production should be safe. Selecting spices and seasonings and combining them in proper amounts is important. They must complement each other to create a satisfying product. At the same time, there are many non-meat ingredients that are essential to the sausage-making process. These non-meat ingredients stabilize the mixture and add specific characteristics and flavors to the final product. Ingredients used in fresh sausage include water, salt, and antioxidants, along with traditional spices, seasonings, and flavorings. And The amount of non-meat ingredients, such as spices, is determined by the overall weight of the product mixture.

2. Grinding meat ingredients

The second step in sausage production is grinding the ingredients by meat grinding machine efficiently. The grinding stage reduces the meat ingredients into small, uniformly sized particles. Ground meat is the primary ingredient in a sausage formulation. The characteristics of the meat ingredients used to create the sausage define the type of sausage such as the overall taste, texture, aroma, along with the protein and fat content. Generally, grinding processes will vary according to the manufacturer and the nature of the product. Some sausage products use coarsely ground meats, others use more finely ground meat ingredients. Some manufacturers grind the lean and fat trimmings separately, grinding the lean trimmings to a finer consistency than the fat meats.

3. Blending the meat and non-meat ingredients

Manufacturers carefully control the blending of the meat and non-meat ingredients to create the desired characteristics for a specific sausage formulation. The meat and non-meat ingredients are placed in a meat mixer and thoroughly blended. The blending process must also obtain a uniform distribution of any non-meat ingredients within the product formulation. For example, flavorings, salts, and other ingredients must be consistently mixed throughout a sausage formulation.

4. Stuffing and filling

After the blending is complete, the blended ingredients may be bulk packaged, or they may be extruded into a casing. This process is called stuffing. And the sausage filler machine is the necessary equipment for stuffing kinds of sausages.

5. Smoking

Smoking is used to dry and cure the meat for making smoked sausage, and impart flavors and aroma to the final product. Smoking was traditionally important because it inhibited bacterial growth on the finished product. A smoke generator creates natural smoke via a carefully controlled burning of hardwood sawdust, wood chips, or logs. However, automatic meat smoking machine has replaced the traditional smoking machine by employing an improved smoking method to process meat in a more healthy and sanitary way than the traditional smoking method now.

6. Packaging and storage

The fresh sausage product is sometimes packaged for sale to the customer. The product may be wrapped in a gas-impermeable plastic, and placed into refrigerated storage or display. The specific packaging will vary according to the needs of the end-user, the processor must follow hygienic standards when packaging any sausage product to avoid contaminating the product. Often retail fresh sausage is tray packed. However, many sausage products are vacuum packed, freshness dated and 100% edible. Handle carefully and store properly to preserve freshness. Use right away or freeze. Vacuum-packaged sausage can be frozen as is. Try to eliminate air from the package whether wrapping in zipper bags, freezer paper, or plastic wrap. You can freeze items for 1-2 months without affecting the flavor and quality of the sausage.

IV. Video Show of How to Produce Sausages/ Hot Dogs

V. Sausage Variations in Daily Life

Sausage manufacturing processing app
Sausage manufacturing processing app

Sausages may be served as an appetizer, in a sandwich, in a bread roll as a hot dog, wrapped in a tortilla, or as an ingredient in dishes such as stews and casseroles. It can be served on a stick or on a bone as well. Sausage without a casing is called sausage meat and can be fried or used as stuffing for poultry, or for wrapping foods like Scotch eggs. Similarly, sausage meat encased in puff pastry is called a sausage roll.
Sausages are almost always fried in oil, served for any meal, particularly breakfast or lunch and often sweet sausages have been created which are made with any of the above: dried fruit, nuts, caramel and chocolate, bound with butter and sugar. These sweet sausages are refrigerated rather than fried and usually, however, served for dessert rather than as part of a savory course. Sausages can also be modified to use indigenous ingredients. Mexican styles add oregano and the guajillo red pepper to the Spanish chorizo to give it an even hotter spicy touch. Certain sausages also contain ingredients such as cheese and apple, or types of vegetable.

Forcemeat sausage manufacturing: A Key Component of Sausage-Making

Forcemeat is a combination of meat, fat, seasonings and other ingredients that are blended together through grinding or puréeing to form an emulsion.

Forcemeat is used as the main ingredient in making sausages, pâtés, terrines, galantines and other charcuterie items. Basically, it's the filling. And it's named because in making sausages, the filling is forced into the casing.

If you're thinking this sounds like a lot of effort, remember that sausages were invented with two primary purposes in mind:

  1. Use up every last scrap of edible material from the carcass of the pig
  2. Transform this edible material into a form that will allow it to last for a long time, with no refrigeration

Sausages and other charcuterie items are part of a culinary field known as garde manger, which concerns itself with the art of preparing and preserving foods using techniques as varied as pickling, smoking, salting or air-drying.

Why Make Forcemeat?

To understand why this works, remember that food spoilage (as well as food poisoning) is caused by tiny organisms called bacteria. In addition to food, these bacteria need water and oxygen, as well as a certain favorable range of acidity (pH level). Food preservation, then, comes down to controlling one or more of those factors to ensure that the bacteria can't survive.

Sausage-making, for instance, often involves smoking or air-drying, both of which deprive bacteria of air or water. Additionally, sausage-making always uses salt, which itself deprives bacteria of water through a process known as osmosis. (You can read more about the six factors that contribute to the growth of the bacteria that cause food spoilage.)

In any case, just as it is possible to preserve strips of meat by drying it to make jerky, forcemeat is the emulsion created by grinding or pureeing meat, fat and other ingredients along with preservatives like salt, sugar, and sodium nitrite, to make sausage.

Grinding into forcemeat thus helps expose more of the ingredients to whatever the preservative happens to be in use, whether it's salt or smoke or air.

Types of Forcemeat

Traditional or straight forcemeat is made with pork meat and pork fat, along with a primary meat such as fish, seafood, veal, poultry or game.

Country-style forcemeat has a coarser texture and traditionally includes pork liver along with some garnish of nuts or vegetables. It usually uses some sort of binder, called a panada, such as cubes of bread soaked in egg and milk.

Mousseline forcemeat has the lightest texture, and is usually made with heavy cream rather than pork fat. Mousseline forcemeats are typically forced through a sieve to produce a very fine consistency. They're good to use as fillings or stuffing, for instance, in ravioli or tortellini.

Gratin forcemeat is made by briefly searing the primary meat, developing flavor and color, before cooling and grinding it as in a straight forcemeat.

One traditional form of forcemeat is used when making the classic chicken galantine, in which the meat of a whole deboned chicken is combined with finely chopped veal, truffles, pork fat and other ingredients, along with numerous seasonings. This mixture comprises the forcemeat, which was then stuffed into the skin of the chicken, tied, wrapped in bacon and poached in stock.

Sausage making has been used for hundreds of years to preserve meat.

  • Comminution (Particle Reduction) Comminution is the process by which meat is ground, chopped, diced, emulsified, or reduced to minute particles for incorporation into sausage.
  • Emulsification - If a meat mixture is comminuted with salt in a bowl chopper or silent cutter, a finely chopped sau­sage batter is formed. In the presence of salt a meat emulsion can be formed. In meat emulsions, lean meat and fat particles are dispersed in a complex of water, proteins, cellular components, and a variety of spices and seasonings.
  • Blending - Ground meat or chopped meat, but not meat emulsions, can be placed in a mixer/blender to evenly dis­tribute the lean and fat particles and any cure ingredients that are in the mix­ture. After blending, the mixture may be added to the revolving metal bowl of a chopper, where rotating knife blades cut through the meat mass and mix in seasonings and
  • other ingredients. In this application, time in the bowl chopper is short and emulsification is not the desired result. After a short time in the chopper, meat to be used in ground products goes directly into the stuffer to be formed into sausages.
  • Forming - Some processed meat products, such as fresh pork sausage,
    may be sold in bulk, in chubs or formed into patties. Others are molded into
    loaves, but most are stuffed into cas­ings. Comminuted products are placed in casings to give them a characteristic shape (like that of a wiener), to hold the product together, and to allow for further processing.
  • Types of casings.
  • Tying - According to the type of meat product and the particular casing, the
chris sausage 1
  • sausage may be tied at each end with string or fastened with metal clips. With smaller sausages, such as frankfurters casings are normally twisted or draw together either by hand or mechanically to produce links as identical in shape and size as possible.

Source - Lessons on Meat

Meat Selection

Meat for sausages is either pork, or a combination of pork with beef, veal or poultry. People living in off beaten track areas, (ie: Central Alaska) might use wild game meats like moose, bear, elk, reindeer, or rabbit to make sausages. The extremely religious will only use beef or lamb.  However, it is still recommended to mix these lean meats with pork to achieve better texture and flavor. When it comes to sausages, pork is king. The fat makes sausage tender and juicy, no fat, and the meat is dry. Try to fry a hamburger that is 95/5 (5 % fat) and one that is 80/20 (20 % fat), and you will see the difference. If you use a cut that is too lean, your sausage will definitevely be healthier and cleaner, but you will miss out on the taste. Venison is very lean meat, definitely healthy, but then why does every recipe beg for pork fat? To make it taste good . Not enough fat makes it dry and hard to bite. Sausage needs about 25 – 30 % of fat in it and pork butts lend themselves as excellent choices. The pork butt (sometimes called Boston butt) is a great all around choice. It has an ideal fat to lean meat ratio for sausage making. Another added bonus is its bone is extremely easy to remove.

It might come as a surprise but the main ingredient in meat is water 40 – 75%. The fat content varies widely – 1 – 40 %, younger animals have less fat . Veal meat is considered the leanest, and pork the fattest although some cuts like pork loin or ham are very lean. Bear in mind that pork fat is unsaturated fat (good cholesterol) and pork lard (melted fatback) is much healthier than butter which is saturated fat (bad cholesterol).

To make the very fine textured sausages known as hot dogs or wieners, a great deal of poultry is used. However, the technology used in their production requires bowl cutters to emulsify the meat. A food processor with some cold water might help produce the level of emulsification acceptable for production. Grinding the meat a few times, each time through a plate with smaller holes, will also leave a finely ground product.

The age of the animal is an important factor in meat quality, but it’s not the only one. The older the hog, the fatter it is. The type of food it consumed, and even how much time it spent in open air also contribute to its final taste. The fame of some of the best hams in the world depends not only how they are made but on what pigs ate most of their lives: Original American Smithfield Ham – peanuts, Spanish Serrano – oak acorns, Italian Parma – chestnuts and whey (from the parmesan cheese making process).

There are many sausage recipes that require that beef is added to pork. Some are made entirely of beef. Beef when finely ground has excellent water binding qualities. Beef like pork needs some fat to taste juicy and to have good flavor. Beef is tougher (the animal is older), its meat and blood are darker and the fat is of little use in sausages. Beef liver is ill suited for making liver sausages but up to 50 % of it can be mixed with pork liver. Pork liver is fine, veal liver is excellent. For blood sausages pork blood is also preferred to beef blood as it is much lighter in color. Beef has excellent binding qualities; a fine grind can hold up to 30 % of water. That means all the natural juices will be entirely contained within. About 10 – 20 % of beef is added to pork to make certain types of sausages (ie, Hunter’ sausage), but nothing stops you from going 100 % beef (Thuringer, Pastrami), using lamb and beef (Merquez), or pork and veal (Bockwurst). In Muslim areas, lamb and beef will be used, whereas in Christian parts pork, beef, veal, and lamb are the meats of choice.

When it comes to selecting pork meat for sausages, the majority of books and recipes mention the same word : "use a pork butt". Sure, it has the right lean meat to fat ratio of 70/30 and the sasuage will be fine. What about a guy with a big family who buys the whole hog - there are two pork butts totalling 15 lbs in weight and he certainly can make some sausages but what about the remaining 250 lbs of the meat ? He should have nothing left, some of it will be eaten right away : ribs, chops, loins and the rest can be processed to make all kinds of fresh and cooked smoked products like hams, butts, Canadian Bacon, smoked bacons, back fat, blood sausage, liverwurst, headcheese and dozens of different sausages.

Then comes a second advice: "Good cuts of meat make good sausages. Trim out all all gristle, sinew, and excess fat but blood clots,". save those trimmings for later. Emulsified sausages (hot dog, bologna), headcheeses and liver sausages need lower class of meat (sinews, tendons, gristle, skins, deboned meat) that is very rich in collagen. This meat when emulsified (made into a paste) will hold a lot of water, will bind fat and once when heated will form a natural gelatin which is crucial when making headcheeses. For those applications pork skin or pork hocks are superior to any lean meat. All pork meat is well adapted for making sausages, you just have to know which sausage needs jowls (cheeks), when to use fatback or headmeat and skins. And those seemingly inferior kinds of meats are # 1 seller in the USA as the whole nation consumes hot dogs, frankfurters and bologna on a daily basis. Specially designed de-boning machines are scraping off every bit of pork, beef and poultry bones to recycle every particle of meat and tendon. Then soy protein concentrate is added to boost up nutritional value as a lot of water was added during emulsifying. In some countries situation is so rampant that a hot dog contains only 15 % of meat and the rest are fillers, binders and flavor enhancers. But it looks presentable, has an acceptable taste and most important is reasonably priced.

Most sausages are made of either pure pork, or a combination with other meats, most often beef. Sausages made entirely from beef will be drier with a harder texture. In Germany sausages are often made from equal amounts of pork and beef, in Poland pork is more popular. Hungarian, Italian and Spanish sausages contain mostly pork.

People living in off beaten track areas, (i.e. Central Alaska) might use wild game meats like moose, bear, elk, reindeer, or rabbit. However, it is still recommended to mix these lean meats with pork to achieve better texture and flavor.

Veal makes a light colored sausage and has excellent binding properties. Mutton can also be used in sausage. It has poor water holding properties and its distinctive flavor is not appreciated by many. For this reason it should be limited to around 15% in any recipe.
Emulsified sausages (finely comminuted) such as high quality frankfurters usually contain more beef (40-60%) due to its excellent water holding capacities. Cheaply produced commercial versions incorporate machine separated meat, different trimmings, and phosphates which are known for their strong water binding properties. You can mix fresh and previously frozen meats together but for the best results there should be no more than 20-30% frozen meat.

Geographical locations have often dictated what animals can grow in a particular climatic zone. High altitudes establish the vegetation that will grow at those levels which will attract only animals that like such a diet. Lamas have adapted well to the high Andes of South America and will be popular meat in Bolivia and Chile. Goats generally prosper well in mountainous locations. Ostrich is commonly consumed in South Africa. In Alaska moose, bear, reindeer and caribou are the most common animals and those meats will end up for making sausages. Local custom and religious beliefs greatly influence which meats will be selected. Norway is known for using different meats such as moose, reindeer, mutton, lamb, goat, horse, offal (heart, liver) and blood. Norwegian sausages such as Faremorr, Sognemorr gilde, Stabbur and Tiriltunga contain beef, lamb and horsemeat and are heavily smoked.

The second important factor is a religious belief and many people stay away from pork, depriving themselves from eating the best quality products. The third factor will be simple economics which is to reserve the consumption of higher value meats to the upper class and those less fortunate have to look at other combinations of meats. Sausages are made from sheep, goats, camels, horses and other meats, but those materials will hardly appeal to the majority of Western consumers.

Sausages can be made from all kinds of meats, some of them quite exotic, but we limit our choices to meats that are common. Chicken is the most popular meat which is consumed worldwide as it is easy to raise and can be cooked and eaten by the average family at one sitting. Other meats of value are fish, venison and wild game.

Meat TypeAdvantagesDisadvantagesChickenCheap, contains little fat, available everywhere.High pH: breast 5.6-5.8, thigh 6.1-6.4. Poor fat characteristics, very low fat melting point temperature. Low myoglobin content (light meat, especially breast) results in a poor final color. Skin often contains a large number of pathogenic bacteria.FishCheap raw material. Easy to process. All varieties can be used, including de-boned meat.Needs to be combined with pork or other meats. No myoglobin (white or grayish color). The final flavor is always fishy even when other meats were added.VenisonGood color, good price. Popular meat in Northwestern U.S. and Alaska.Available during hunting season. Often infected with trichinae worms. Very lean, needs some pork fat.

Meat Color

Meat color is determined largely by the amount of myoglobin a particular animal carries. The more myoglobin the darker the meat. To some extent oxygen use can be related to the animal’s general level of activity: muscles that are exercised frequently such as the legs need more oxygen. As a result they develop a darker color unlike the breast which is white due to little exercise. Fish float in water and need less muscle energy to support their skeletons.

Fat

There are different types of fat and they can be used for different purposes. There are hard, medium and soft fats and they have a different texture and different melting point. Some head cheese and emulsified sausage recipes call for dewlap or jowl fat that may be hard to obtain. Bacon looks similar and it seems like a good replacement, but it is not. Bacon is a soft belly fat and dewlap/jowl is a hard fat. Fatter cuts from a pork butt are a much better choice that contain hard fat and meat.

Pork fat is preferred for making sausages as it is hard, white and tastes the best. It exhibits different degrees of hardness depending from which animal part it comes from. Back fat, jowl fat, or butt fat (surface area) have a very hard texture and higher melting point. They are the best choice for making products in which we expect to see the individual specks of fat in a finished product such as dry salami. Soft fat such as bacon fat is fine for making fermented spreadable sausages such as mettwurst or teewurst. For most sausages any fat pork trimmings are fine providing they were partially frozen when submitted to the grinding process. This prevents fat smearing when temperature increases due to the mechanical action of knives and delivery worm on fat particles.

Beef fat has a higher melting temperature than pork but is yellowish in color which affects the appearance of the product where discrete particles of fat should be visible. Besides, beef fat does not taste as good as pork fat. If no back fat is available, use fat pork trimmings or meats which contain more fat and grind them together. Instead of struggling with fat smearing when processing meats at higher than recommended temperatures, it is better to use cuts that contain a higher proportion of fat. It will help to overcome the problem of smearing as long as the materials are partially frozen.

Partially frozen back fat may be manually diced with ease into 3/16” (5 mm) pieces.

Chicken fat is neutral in flavor and is suited for making chicken sausages although it presents some problems. It is soft and melts at such low temperatures that it is hard to work with. Softer fats can be used for making emulsified or liver sausages where it will become a part of emulsified paste. For instance, vegetable oil can be successfully mixed with liver and fat when producing liver sausage.

Sausage manufacturing:

The Practice of Sausage manufacturing:

Sausage is a convenient food available in a great number of varieties and flavors. Sausages are an excellent source of high quality protein, containing all the essential amino acids in appropriate amounts necessary for growth, maintenance and repair of body tissue. Sausage also provides significant amounts of vitamins and minerals.

Sausage: Chopped or ground meat that has been blended with spices and other seasonings and usually stuffed in natural or manufactured casings.

History

The origin of meat processing is lost in antiquity but probably began when mankind learned that salt is an effective preservative. Sausage making evolved as an effort to economize and preserve meat that could not be consumed fresh at slaughter. In sausage making, quality standards are maintained while using most parts of the animal carcass.

Good sausage makers are as discriminating about what goes into sausage as winemakers are about selecting grapes. Early sausage makers found that a wide range of raw ingredients could be used. The primary ingredients of sausage were the parts of the animal carcasses that could not be used in other ways. Today many primal parts are used in the production of sausage; however, the less tender cuts, organ meats and even blood can be made delicious when ground, spiced and cased.

The procedure of stuffing meat into casings remains basically the same today, but sausage recipes have been greatly refined and sausage making has become a highly respected culinary art. Any product can be made from a wide range of raw materials exposed to rather extreme conditions of temperature and time schedules and be consumer acceptable.

Sausage grew in popularity and brought fame and fortune to many sausage makers and to various cities. Today more than 250 varieties are sold, and many of these can be traced back to the town and country of origin.

The contemporary role of sausage fits conveniently into our modern lifestyles as an elegant appetizer for entertaining as well as the main course in “quick-and-easy” meals. Furthermore, sausages are a relatively safe product to consume because of the added effects of salt, pH, cure, drying and cooking to preserve the product and eliminate harmful bacteria.

Sausage is a convenient food available in a great number of varieties and flavors. Sausages are an excellent source of high quality protein, containing all the essential amino acids in appropriate amounts necessary for growth, maintenance and repair of body tissue. Sausage also provides significant amounts of vitamins and minerals.

Types of Sausage

Sausages are made from beef, veal, pork, lamb, poultry and wild game, or from any combination of these meats. Sausage making has become a unique blend of old procedures and new scientific, highly-mechanized processes. Traditionally, sausage was formed into a symmetrical shape, but it now can be found in a variety of shapes and sizes to meet consumers’ needs. Many sausage products are vacuum packed, freshness dated and 100% edible.

Sausages can be classified in a variety of ways, but probably the most useful is by how they are processed (Table 1). Processing methods give sausages easily recognizable characteristics.

Sausage manufacturing app
Sausage manufacturing app

Equipment

It only requires a grinder, a good meat thermometer and some general household items to make excellent sausage. If you do not have a grinder, you can purchase ground meat from the store. Many products do not need to be smoked, but liquid smoke can be added to give the smoky flavor desired, or you may add a small portion of a cooked, smoked product like bacon to produce the smoky flavor.

You can purchase a household smoker or make one. An old refrigerator converted to a smokehouse works quite well if you need to smoke the product. Smokehouses can be as simple as a tarp covering or as sophisticated as a commercial unit.

Procedure

Sausage making is a continuous sequence of events. Each step in the proper sequence is important to a successful operation.

It is not practical to consider each step separately or to assign more importance to one phase or operation, but for convenience and illustration, we can break sausage production down into four basic processes: selecting ingredients, grinding and mixing, stuffing, and thermal processing.

Selecting Ingredients

The finished product is only as good as the ingredients it contains. Meat should be fresh, high quality, have the proper lean-to-fat ratio and have good binding qualities. The meat should be clean and not contaminated with bacteria or other microorganisms. In other words, meat used in sausage production should be as safe as any meat you would prepare in your kitchen. Selecting spices and seasonings and combining them in proper amounts is important. They must complement each other to create a satisfying product.

Cure, an essential part of some formulations, is sodium nitrite (usually 6 percent) on a salt base. It usually can be purchased at a local locker plant. Sodium nitrite is very necessary to inhibit production and growth of the deadly toxin produced by the microorganism Clostridium botulinum. It also gives the characteristic cured color to a sausage product and improves flavor. Commercial products such as Freeze Em Pickle, Tender Quick and saltpeter can be found in markets and at drugstores. If these are used, be sure to follow directions on the packages.

Grinding and mixing

For safety, keep the temperature of the meat as cold as possible during grinding and mixing. The usual procedure is to grind the various meats coarsely and then add the rest of the ingredients, mixing thoroughly.

A slurry is made of the spices and salt using two cups of water. (Water is added to dissolve the curing ingredients, to facilitate the mixing and to give the products their characteristic texture and taste.)

The product is then ground again to the desired consistency. Mixing should be done before the final grind. Grinding improves the uniformity of the product by distributing the ingredients and making the particles the same size. Unless you have special equipment, it is desirable to work with small batches (up to 25 pounds) so the cure and seasoning can be more evenly distributed. If you don’t have a grinder, buy ground meats, add the seasonings and mix thoroughly by hand.

Stuffing

It is not necessary to stuff fresh sausage meat. It can be left in bulk form or made into patties. Most sausage, however, is made by placing the ground ingredients in some type of forming device to give them shape and hold them together for thermal processing. The casing materials may be natural or manufactured. Natural casings are the gastrointestinal tracts of cattle, sheep and hogs. Generally, hog casings are the most suitable for home use and work quite well for Polish and breakfast-type sausages. They are digestible and are very permeable to moisture and smoke.

All casings preserved in salt must be soaked in lukewarm water for at least 30 minutes before use. Flush each casing under cold water, running cold water through the casing. This removes excess salt from the casing. Unused casings can be drained, covered with salt and frozen.

Fibrous casings are more suitable for summer sausage and similar products because of their greater strength and the variety of sizes available. They are permeable to smoke and moisture and can easily be removed from the finished product. These casings should be soaked before use in 80 to 100 F water for at least 30 minutes, but not more than four hours before use. If the casings are not pre-stuck they should be punctured with a knife point or pin to eliminate air and fat pockets in the finished sausage.

Collagen casings contain the attributes of both natural and fibrous casings. They have been developed primarily for use in products such as fresh pork sausage and pepperoni sticks. They are uniform in size, relatively strong and easy to handle. These casings also are used for the manufacture of dry sausages, because they are permeable and will shrink.

For cooked products that are generally water-cooked (like braunschweiger), plastic casings impermeable to water are used.

Thermal processing

Sausage is smoked and heated in order to pasteurize it and extend its shelf life, as well as to impart a smoky flavor and improve its appearance. Smoking and heating also fixes the color and causes protein to move to the surface of the sausage so it will hold its shape when the casing is removed.

A few products, such as mettwurst, are smoked with a minimum of heating and are designed to be cooked at the time of consumption. Others, such as liver sausage, are cooked but not smoked.

Procedure for smoking polish sausage: After stuffing in hog casings (pre-flushed), let hang and dry. Smoke at 120 F for one hour, 150 F for one more hour, then at 170 F for two hours or until an internal temperature of 141 F is reached. Remove from smokehouse and spray with hot water for 15 to 30 seconds. Follow with cold shower or dip in a slush tank until internal temperature reaches 100 F. Let dry for one to two hours. Place in a cooler.

Procedure for smoking summer sausage: After stuffing in casing, smoke at 140 F for one hour, 160 F for one more hour, then at 180 F for two hours or until the internal temperatures reach 155 F. Remove from the smokehouse and follow the same procedure as for polish sausage.

Procedure for making cooked sausage: After stuffing the ground ingredients into an impermeable casing, put the sausage into a pan of water. Heat water to 170 F and hold it there until the sausage reaches 155 F. A thermometer is essential for obtaining proper temperature. The water should not boil, as this will ruin the product. If you are making a sausage product using cooked meat, be sure the meat was cooked with low heat.

Food Safety Guidelines

Bacteria can spread throughout a work area and contaminate equipment and work surfaces. To reduce your risk of foodborne illness:

• Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and water before beginning to work and after changing tasks or after doing anything that could contaminate your hands such as sneezing or using the bathroom.

• Start with clean equipment and clean thoroughly after using. Be sure all surfaces that come into contact with meat are clean.

• Sanitize surfaces with a solution of 1 tablespoon chlorine bleach per gallon of water. Allow to air dry.

• If using frozen meat in sausage formulations, thaw it in a cooler on the lowest shelf to avoid dripping of juices on ready-to-eat foods. Keep raw meat separate from other foods.

• Marinate raw meat in the refrigerator.

• Keep meat as cold as possible (40 F or lower) during processing.

• If dehydrating meat, don’t rely on the dial settings. Measure the temperature of the dehydrator with a calibrated thermometer.

Sausage formulations

The following sausage formulations have been used for classroom work and tested at the North Dakota State University Meats Laboratory

BEEF JERKY*

5 pounds lean beef
1½ tablespoons salt
1 tablespoon black pepper
1½ teaspoons cardamon
2 teaspoons marjoram
1½ teaspoons cure (pink color)
2 teaspoons monosodium glutamate
2 teaspoons cayenne pepper
1 tablespoon garlic powder
½ cup liquid smoke
½ cup water

Mix all spices together with meat. Mix well until meat is tacky. Grind and press into a loaf pan lined with foil. Put in cooler or freezer to firm product for slicing. Slice as thin as desirable and lay on oven racks. Spray oven racks with oil, than lay slices on the racks. Spray with liquid smoke and garlic mixture. Dry in oven at 170 F for two to three hours. (See chart for dehydrator drying.)

*NOTE: Temperature is very important when making jerky. The USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline’s current recommendation for making jerky safely is to heat meat to 160 °F before the dehydrating process to assure that any bacteria present will be destroyed by wet heat.

Recent work at the University of Wisconsin demonstrated that the following time-temperature combinations are effective at killing E. coli 0157:H7 in jerky products. Although the lower temperatures are considered effective at killing bacteria, it is recommended that dehydrator temperatures of 145 F or higher be used. Monitor the temperature of the dehydrator by placing the metal stem of a dial thermometer between dehydrator trays, or create an opening for the stem by drilling a hole through the side of the tray.

Drying                                            Minimum
Temperature                                   Drying Time

125 F                                                10 hours
135 F                                                 8 hours
145 F                                                 7 hours
155 F                                                 4 hours

Source: Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Service, Meat and Animal Science Department. University of Wisconsin — Madison.

There are special considerations when making homemade jerky from venison or other wild game, since venison can be heavily contaminated with fecal bacteria depending on the skill of the hunter in dressing the animal and location of the wound. While fresh beef is usually rapidly chilled, deer carcasses are typically held at ambient temperatures, potentially allowing bacteria
multiplication.

HOT PICKLE CURE JERKY**

This recipe uses a pre-cook phase.
Yield: Five pounds of fresh meat should weigh approximately 2 pounds after drying or smoking.

1. Slice 5 pounds of meat (¼-inch strips) with the grain, not crosswise. Use fresh lean meat free of fat and connective tissue. Spread out meat and sprinkle on 3 Tbsp. salt, 2 tsp. ground black pepper, and 2 Tbsp. sugar. Put the meat in a pan or dish and let stand for 24 hours in the refrigerator.

2. Pound the meat on both sides to work in the spice. Optional: Dip strips of meat in a liquid smoke solution (five parts water to one part liquid smoke) for one to two seconds for added flavor.

3. Make a brine by dissolving ¾ cup salt, ½ cup sugar, and 2 Tbsp. ground black pepper in a gallon of water. Stir to dissolve the salt and sugar.

4. Bring the brine to a low to medium boil. Immerse the seasoned meat strips (a few at a time) into the boiling brine until they turn gray (approximately one to two minutes). Remove meat from brine, using clean tongs or other utensils that have not contacted raw meat.

5. Spread out meat on a clean dehydrator rack or on a clean rack in the top half of a kitchen oven. If you use a kitchen oven, open the oven door to the first or second stop. Heat at 120 to 150 F (lowest oven temperature) for nine to 24 hours or until the desired dryness is reached. Remove jerky from oven before it gets too hard or brittle. Properly dried jerky should crack when bent in half but should not break into two pieces.

6. Store jerky in clean jars or plastic bags, or wrap it in freezer paper and freeze. If kept dry, properly prepared jerky will last almost indefinitely at any temperature, but its quality deteriorates after a few months.

**Source of recipe: You and Your Wild Game, 1984 by R.A. Field and C.A. Raab, University of Wyoming Agricultural Extension Service, B-613R, p. 58.

SWEET ITALIAN SAUSAGE

90 pounds pork trim (70 percent lean)
3 quarts water
3 cups salt
1 cup sugar
6 tablespoons cure
7 tablespoons plus 3 teaspoons cracked
fennel seed
3 ounces paprika
1/3 cup black pepper
1/3 cup cayenne pepper
1/3 cup garlic powder
2 tablespoons oregano
1 tablespoon sweet basil

Coarse-grind meat trimmings. Add salt, water, sugar, cure and spices. Regrind through ¼-inch diameter plate and stuff into pork casings. As this is a fresh sausage, no smoking is necessary. Product must be cooked before serving.

DRIED BEEF

100 pounds lean beef
9 cups salt
6¾ cups sugar
3½ tablespoons nitrate

Using 1-1½ ounces per pound of meat, rub the salt, sugar and nitrate mixture onto the beef, making sure all areas are well covered. Rub the beef twice at three to five day intervals. Allow two days per pound of meat for the cure to complete. This may also be calculated by using seven days of curing time per inch of thickness of the cut.

After the beef is cured, rinse it with cold water several times; then hang it and allow to dry for 24 hours. Apply a light or heavy smoke as desired. Hang in a dry, well-ventilated room for further drying. NOTE: Lamb or venison can be substituted for beef. Use large lean pieces, such as the round or legs, and separate into top, bottom and tip.

** If you prefer to have a cooked product, smoke and cook to an internal temperature of at least 160 F.

BRAUNSCHWEIGER

10 pounds 50/50 pork trim
10 pounds pork liver
1 pound fat bacon
2/3 cup salt (7 ounces)
4 tablespoons white pepper
3 ounces soy protein (70 percent) (optional)
1 medium size onion
1 teaspoon nutmeg
1½ teaspoon ginger
1 tablespoon cure (6 percent)
2½ teaspoons monosodium glutamate (optional)

Grind pork trimmings, liver and other ingredients to a very fine consistency. Mix in spices, salt and cure. Stuff in moisture-proof fibrous casing and cook in 165 F water bath for 1½ hours or until internal temperature of sausage reaches 155 F. Chill rapidly in water. NOTE: Fat bacon gives smoky flavor.

HAGGIS

5 pounds pork hearts
3 pounds pork liver
2 pounds beef suet
21 cups oatmeal (3½ pounds)
2-3 medium onions
1/3 cup salt
2½ tablespoons white pepper
1 tablespoon nutmeg

Cook hearts and liver in 180-190 F water until tender; do not boil. Remove cooked items. Reserve broth, and grind hearts and liver with beef suet through ¼-inch plate. Chop onions to a fine pulp. Bring the broth to a boil and sprinkle in oatmeal. Stir vigorously. To the hot mass add the cooked meats, onions, salt and spices. Stuff in moisture-proof casing and cook for about 3 hours in 170 F water, or until internal temperature reaches 160 F. Chill in ice water and keep at 30-34 F. NOTE: Quite perishable. You may want to cut down on the amount of oatmeal.

BLOOD SAUSAGE (KLUB)

1 pint blood
1 pint milk or water
½ teaspoon pepper
¼ teaspoon nutmeg
1½ teaspoons ground cloves
1½ teaspoons ground allspice
1 tablespoon salt
1 cup quick cooking rolled oats
5-6 cups flour – enough to make a fairly stiff dough

Mix above ingredients together. Drop by large spoonfuls (about ½ cup) into a large kettle of salted boiling water. Cook until brown throughout. Remove from water. May be eaten hot with butter and syrup.

To heat up with gravy: cut into small pieces (like potatoes in potato salad) into a kettle or frying pan. Add 1 tablespoon of shortening, sugar to taste and milk. Cook until milk forms a light brown gravy. Serve hot. Additional milk may be added as necessary.

ITALIAN HOT SAUSAGE

5 pounds pork trim 60/40
5 pounds lean beef trim
20 cloves garlic, crushed
4 teaspoons red pepper
4 teaspoons fennel seeds, crushed
2 teaspoons thyme
8 bay leaves
3 tablespoons salt
1 tablespoon black pepper
½ teaspoon nutmeg

Grind meat through a coarse plate, then add spices and mix thoroughly. Grind again through a medium plate. Stuff into hog casing. Smoke at 140 F for proper color development and then raise temperature to 170 F until internal temperature of product reaches 155 F. NOTE: This is a very hot, spicy product. Excellent on pizza and will substitute for pepperoni.

GERMAN GRITS

1 beef heart
1 beef tongue
5 pounds neck bones or short ribs
1 large onion (chopped)
2 cloves garlic (chopped)
1 teaspoon salt
½ teaspoon black pepper
¼ teaspoon mustard seed
2 cups pearled barley (1 pound)
Old-fashioned oatmeal

Cook heart and tongue in one kettle. Cook neck bones in another kettle. Add enough water to cover meat and simmer until tender (2 to 3 hours). Skim off any extra fat from broth. Remove meat from broth, remove meat from bones and skin tongue. Grind meat through fine plate. To each kettle of broth add the spices and herbs and simmer for 1 hour. Strain broth and add pearled barley. Simmer until barley becomes plump. Mix in cooked ground meat. Add enough old-fashioned oatmeal to soak up excess broth. Season to taste with salt and pepper. NOTE: If a beefier taste is desired, add beef bouillon cubes to broth, form grits into patties and fry.

FRESH PORK SAUSAGE

45 pounds fresh pork trimmings (70 percent lean)
2½ quarts water
11/3 cups salt
15 ½ tablespoons white pepper
¼ cup rubbed sage
½ cup sugar

Coarse-grind pork; mix in seasonings; grind product to desired size. Stuff into sheep casing. NOTE: May also smoke product for 2 hours at
120 F for smoky flavor. Product must be cooked before serving.

VENISON GARLIC SAUSAGE

12 pounds pork trim 60/40
10 pounds venison trim
2 pounds beef trim
1 pint water
1½ tablespoons cure
2/3 cup salt
4 tablespoons black pepper
2 teaspoons marjoram
5½ teaspoons mustard seed
2 cloves garlic or ½ teaspoon garlic powder

Use same procedure as for Polish sausage.

POLISH SAUSAGE

40 pounds lean pork trimmings
(80 percent lean)
3 pounds lean beef trimmings (80 percent lean)
1 quart water
3 tablespoons cure
11/3 cups salt
½ cup black pepper
4 tablespoons mustard seed
4 teaspoons marjoram
3 cloves garlic or ¾ teaspoon garlic powder

Coarse-grind meat trimmings. Add salt, water, cure and spices; mix thoroughly. Regrind through ¼-inch diameter plate and stuff into pork casings. Smoke product to desired color and heat to an internal temperature of 141 F. Product must be cooked before serving.

LAR’S SUPER GARLIC SAUSAGE

17 pounds beef or venison trim
33 pounds pork trim (50/50)
1½ cups Tender Quick
2/3 cup salt
1 cup brown sugar
½ cup black pepper
6 tablespoons garlic powder
2 teaspoons sage
1 teaspoon allspice
1 tablespoon coriander
1 gallon warm water

Grind meat through coarse plate. Mix spices in water and pour over meat. Mix thoroughly. Grind through coarse plate again and stuff in hog casing. Using a cool smoke (90 F), smoke for 12 hours. Product must be cooked before serving. NOTE: If you don’t like garlic flavor, cut back on amount. Also could fine-grind the product, if desired.

VENISON SUMMER SAUSAGE

15 pounds venison
10 pounds 50/50 pork trimming
2/3 cup salt
1½ tablespoons cure
2½ tablespoons mustard seed
½ cup black pepper
½ cup sugar
1 tablespoon marjoram
1 tablespoon monosodium glutamate (optional)
3 tablespoons garlic powder

Mix salt and cure with coarse-ground product. Pack in shallow pan and place in cooler for three to five days. Mix in remainder of spices, regrind and stuff in 3-inch fibrous casings. Smoke at 140 F for 2 hours; raise temperature to 160 F for 2 hours, and finish product at 170 F until internal temperature reaches 155 F. NOTE: Can substitute lamb or beef for the venison.

SMOKED BRATWURST

90 pounds pork trim (70 percent lean)
3 quarts water
3 cups salt
1 to 11/3 cups sugar
6 tablespoons cure
¾ cup white pepper
¼ cup cayenne
2 tablespoons nutmeg
2 tablespoons thyme
2 tablespoons ginger
1 tablespoon rosemary
1 tablespoon mace

Coarse-grind meat trimmings. Add water, salt, sugar, cure and spices. Mix thoroughly. Regrind through ¼-inch diameter plate. Stuff into pork casings. Smoke product to desired color and heat to an internal temperature of 141 F. Product must be cooked before serving.

SMOKED TURKEY AND PORK SAUSAGE

50 pounds turkey trim (90 percent lean)
40 pounds pork trim (50 percent lean)
3 quarts water
3 cups salt
1 cup to 1 cup and 2 tablespoons dextrose
6 tablespoons cure
1 cup white pepper
½ cup sage
¼ cup cayenne
1 tablespoon thyme
1 tablespoon nutmeg
1 tablespoon ginger
1 tablespoon mace
10 tablespoons monosodium glutamate (optional)

Coarse-grind meat trimmings. Add water, salt, dextrose, cure and spices. Regrind through ¼-inch diameter plate. Stuff into pork casings. Smoke product to desired color and heat to an internal temperature of 141 F. Product must be cooked before serving.

Emulsified Products

30 pounds bull meat
25 pounds 50/50 beef trim
20 pounds 60/40 pork trim
10 quarts water
5 pounds flavorings*

Sausage manufacturing app
Sausage manufacturing app

From the above formulation, different products can be made. These differ in texture and taste.

• wieners – stuff in sheep casing; smoke and cook to 155 F internal temperature.

• dinner franks – stuff in hog casings; smoke and cook to 155 F internal temperature.

• ring bologna – stuff in beef casing; form into a ring; smoke and cook to 155 F internal temperature.

• bologna – stuff in 6-inch diameter fibrous casings; smoke and cook to 155 F internal temperature.

• Leona – add 20 pounds cooked, diced and skinned hog jowls plus 1/3 cup garlic powder to the emulsion; stuff into 2-inch diameter fibrous casings; smoke and cook to 155 F internal temperature.

• pickle and pimento loaf – add 5 pounds sweet pickles and 5 pounds pimentos. Stuff into parchment-lined metal molds or waterproof fibrous casing. Can be water-cooked or baked to internal temperature 155 F.

• macaroni and cheese loaf – add 5 pounds cheese and 5 pounds cooked macaroni. Proceed as with pickle and pimento loaf.

NOTE: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) intensifies and enhances flavor but does not contribute a flavor of its own. It is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, an amino acid. One to two percent of the population may be sensitive to MSG and have mild to transitory reactions in some circumstances when they consume significant amounts, such as would be found in heavily enhanced foods. FDA believes that MSG is a safe food ingredient for the general population.

Sausage manufacturing app
Sausage manufacturing app

Sausage manufacturing app
Sausage manufacturing app
Sausage manufacturing app
Sausage manufacturing app

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